Recession Causes Bankruptcy Boom

According to a report released by the National Bankruptcy Research Center, personal bankruptcy filings are up 34 percent in January 2009 as compared to January 2008. Compared to the previous month, December 2008, filings were up 4.5 percent.

These increases are no doubt a consequence of the current economic crisis. The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) reports that the United States’ economy entered recession in December of 2007.

Traditionally, recession has been defined as two quarterly declines in gross domestic product, but the Business Cycle Dating Committee of the NBER has taken a more comprehensive approach to defining recession. “A recession is a significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in production, employment, real income, and other indicators.”

-NBER, Determination of the December 2007 Peak in Economic Activity, December 11, 2008

Justin Berton, San Francisco Chronicle staff writer, wrote an article titled “Economic Woes Lead to Bankruptcy Boom,” in the January 13, 2009 edition. He reports that membership in NACBA, the National Association of Consumer Bankruptcy Attorneys, has increased by one third in 2008 to 3,200 practicing attorneys.

In 2005 bankruptcy filings skyrocketed to over two million non-business filings, due mostly to anticipation of the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 2005, which took effect on October 17, 2005, making filing bankruptcy much more difficult.

Those who were in poor financial shape had a strong motivation to file bankruptcy before the new law went into effect, rather than to try to work their way out of debt, since they would no longer have the insurance policy of bankruptcy after October 2005.

The Bankruptcy Reform Act of 2005 increased the amount of work it takes to file and decreased eligibility. Filers are also now required to take credit counseling and debtor education classes. Filings in 2004 had actually decreased to 1.56 million filings from the 1.625 million filings in 2003.

In 2006, predictably, bankruptcy filings crashed. Two effects were causing downward pressure on filings. First, filing demand had been cannibalized because many of those who would have, in the absence of the reform act, waited to file in 2006 were motivated to file in 2005 to avoid the restrictive new laws. Second, the restrictive new laws simply made many who previously were eligible to file ineligible.

What the credit card lobby took away through the Bankruptcy Reform Act, the tanking economy has given back. Many more United States citizens are now eligible to file bankruptcy, though no doubt, they’re not happy about it.

The Difference Between Irresponsible and Responsible Exercises of Parental Authority

For six years I assessed the mental health treatment needs of adults who get caught in the revolving door to a state criminal justice system in New England. In piecing together the histories of these clients I spoke with their parents when opportunities arose. What was often the case during these interviews is that these parents plead ignorance as to how events in the lives of their families impacted their children. Clearly, these parents were either unwilling and/or unable to empathize and build bridges to their children’s rich inner worlds. This is why these parents remained at a loss to chronicle the emotional histories of their grown children. These interviews have been instructive in teaching me how these parents lost control of their kids when they were old enough to survive outside the home. The desire to please their parents in order to receive valuable nurturance was extinguished early on. Their children may have paid lip service to them but, for all intents and purposes by age 14 or so most of these kids stopped listening to their parents altogether. By that time, as they probably saw it, they had nothing left to lose. These victims of parental indifference and abuse were soon primed to demand reparations from an unsuspecting community that was about to pay dearly for what these children felt robbed of growing up. One doesn’t behave in respectful ways as an adult when fed a steady diet of disrespect as a child.

As implied previously, the abdication and/or abuse of parental authority is an incubator for the development of antisocial traits. The antidote to the behavioral viruses these traits spawn is a parenting philosophy built on a bedrock of benevolent authority. Benevolent authority is put into action as consistent and continuous dialogues with our children where we actively listen to and clarify what we hear, reflect back our understanding of what we hear and respond respectfully in our roles as leaders and teachers. This way, our respect and love for our children as separate people comes across loud and clear. Collectively, these interpersonal skills form a diplomatic initiative that opens negotiations to obtain our children’s cooperation through motivational strategies designed to get them on board with our vision for raising them. “We” stay in charge no matter how humbly we wear the title, “boss.”

This interactive and dynamic process requires a flexible vision. It is rooted in forging an alliance so that we can use our influence to leverage agreements. In truth, it is about as democratic an arrangement as The US Government in their foreign policy negotiations with third world countries who depend on our foreign aid to preserve their sovereignty. Benevolent parents not unlike benevolent superpowers, speak softly and carry a “big carrot.” To flaunt superior power is tantamount to baiting an inferior foe into a guerrilla conflict. As parents we want allies of our children, not adversaries. Once we turn parenting into a battle of wills we may win some battles but, we will ultimately lose the war with enduring negative consequences.

It is my contention that we as parents must share authority with our children without abdicating the right to make the final decisions. This goal can be accomplished within the context of relationships that honor our children’s needs to keep their self respect and dignity in tact. If we treat our children as subjects rather than objects more times than not, we will in turn be accorded roles of co-collaborators and editors of our children’s story lines as they creatively unfold. To be kept outside the loop so to speak and have this precedent continue into adolescence sets the stage for losing our kids to the streets. I have heard countless times from clients in a million different ways how: “No one has the right to tell me what to do!”

To exercise benevolent authority it is imperative to frame childhood resistance to parental authority as efforts at self definition and not a referendum on the parent’s unworthiness of respect. If you’re over 40 and/or were raised in a foreign culture, it’s easy to have learned that “good children” are seen and only heard when addressed and, to regard willful behavior as signs of “badness” or “inadequacy.”

Single parents tend to be most vulnerable to misinterpreting such reactions as they more often than not feel over worked, neglected and unappreciated. If you are a single parent and take seriously the time and energy devoted to raising your children then, “I don’t have time to care for my needs is not a bumper sticker you can afford to have adorning your car. The price of doing so is to blame your children for the self inflicted wounds you suffered early on when they are being developmentally and age appropriately self centered, inconsiderate, demanding ingrates. It’s never their job to take care of you even if they are the least bit willing and able to do.

My parenting philosophy, borrowed from many sources is based on teaching children to feel entitled to ask for and negotiate their needs, to learn that the satisfaction of their needs may require patience, perseverance and resourcefulness over time. When we fail to care adequately for ourselves it can be unbearably painful to listen to our children ask for the sky and then, unrealistic that we praise them for doing so. We all know how to shame and guilt our children into silence but, this is a victory we and they pay for down the road. It’s difficult to take children to places we have never been before. So, make it a priority to learn to care for your needs so that you will find the intestinal fortitude to cope constructively with their resistance to unpopular but, important decisions that you know from experience are in their best interests.

Below is an example of the conditions that shape the process by which a normally benevolent single parent loses empathy for her children. Joan Taylor will tread on thin ice with her kids because fatigue breaks down her defenses and her resultant helplessness draws her into emotional time warp. Joan momentarily relives moments in time when as a child she felt wounded by her parents’ empathic failures. She becomes driven by aggressive demands for reparations and uses self righteous rationalizations to retaliate for grievances collected years ago. In this emotional space Joan’s children become unwitting and reluctant actors on the stage of Joan’s morality play. Lost in her own emotional blindness Joan both abdicates and abuses her parental authority. Her children are the real victims and react accordingly.

These are unavoidable normal occurrences. The frequency with which they occur is a yardstick of our emotional courage and commitment to our children. It is also a measure of our capacities to learn about how our past haunts us, make changes to reduce our vulnerabilities to such memories and grow beyond being wounded by them. Children are very resilient to a point. How we deal with such challenges to grow in our emotional intelligence will affect our children one way or another in the long run.

In the example below the results are predictable. As events unfold inside Joan that shape regrettable behaviors, please notice the opportunities Joan has to gently regain control of the parental reins. Let’s see what happens

It’s the end of a long three day weekend. Joan Taylor, a single parent of two children, Amy age 9 and Jason age 6 feels as worn out as the frayed dish towel she holds as the last dinner dishes are washed and placed in the drainer. The kids are parked in front of the television and Joan wryly remarks to herself that the dish towel becomes an extension of her right arm by the end of her weekend with the kids. Joan observes herself and momentarily ponders with puzzlement why she rigidly pushes herself so unnecessarily to wash every last dish after each meal before she moves on to the next activity. She resents the helplessness such compulsiveness engenders.

This is a painful moment for Joan. Joan’s quasi dictatorial relationship to herself is no accident as both of her parents were quite the taskmasters. She envies and resents her children who are relaxing in front of the television set understandably unfazed by their own obliviousness to neglected chores. They are kids still growing in their capacities to retain and follow instructions and lack the strategies adults use to compensate for temporary memory losses.

Joan’s understandable weariness with her role as a single parent grows more palpable as fatigue overtakes her. She becomes filled with guilt and self recriminations in reaction to feeling burdened by her children’s dependency needs. Joan’s preservation of her identity as a “good mother” requires conscious energy she can’t muster to dispute irrational beliefs she hits herself over the head with. The stage is set for her to play the “blame game” as it’s too painful for her to acknowledge that she is the author of her own misery. All Joan needs now is a flimsy pretext to complete her transformation from responsible parent to self centered, victimized child.

This process is completely invisible to her tired children who are zoned out watching television and predictably oblivious to their mother’s incipient Dr. Jekyll to Mr. Hyde transformation.

Meanwhile, despite their mother’s request they have not packed their suitcases or cleaned up their room in preparation to return to their father’s home for the school week. Joan’s fleeting insight that she is reliving something that may create problems for her evaporates quickly. Instead of calling her own time out to retreat to her bedroom to reflect on and process what’s going on inside of her, Joan’s self righteous anger becomes a moral justification to identify with her drill sergeant father and give her kids a dose of his medicine. Joan doesn’t know what’s driving her in the moment and doesn’t want to know because she wants to gratify her vengeful desires and wouldn’t permit herself to do so if she stopped long enough about what was driving her. Joan will pay in spades as her regression to childhood will leave her depressed the rest of the evening after the kids depart.

Joan barges into Amy and Jason’s bedroom after a perfunctory knock and demands that they turn off the television and pack their bags. Joan’s emotional blindness leads to the misinterpretation that her children’s passivity means they don’t respect her. In truth, this becomes a self fulfilling prophecy only because of the disrespectful manner she approaches her children. These kids unlike their mother who feels very guilty about acknowledging what she regards to be unsavory thoughts and feelings, are very comfortable in their self centeredness and ask in unison with obvious annoyance: “Why are you being so mean? We didn’t do anything. Can’t we watch the end of this show. It’s over in 15 minutes?” Joan is so angry at herself because she knows they are right and yet, her actions that follow reflect that she’s still battling parental ghosts her children now stand in for.

For Joan, Amy and Jason remain confused inside her head with her parents who she still regards as having been unnecessarily punitive and, at the same time passive; leaving her feeling overwhelmed with personal responsibility and both shame and guilt ridden for rejecting personal responsibility as she does now. Joan holds unrealistic expectations that her kids will volunteer to help her get ready to leave. They might have but, it is still Joan’s responsibility to enlist their cooperation with tact, consideration, authority and diplomacy. Joan ensures that they behave in a manner that is pleasing to her as she wants them to help her mimic the interactions between her self and her parents from decades ago.

At first, Amy and Jason refuse to budge and do their chores. What we witness here is the domestic equivalent of management and labor locking horns at the bargaining table. Then, Joan starts yelling and uses fear and intimidation to force her kids to submit. This is an empty victory as what Joan models she certainly doesn’t want her kids to learn in relating to themselves and others. In addition, Amy and Jason are temporarily abandoned as Joan loses empathy with her kids. Their safety and security are ignored.

The moral of the story is that much of the disobedience of our children can be avoided. The buck must stop with us. It’s our responsibility to model self respect, relate to our children with respect and consideration for their dependency needs, learning styles, strengths and weaknesses, talents, and to be sensitive and responsive to their difficulties functioning when in crises or just stressed out from their own daily grinds. We must be comfortable asking politely for what we want from them, make sensible and realistic requests we can explain, listen to their responses, negotiate mutually agreeable solutions when possible and, enforce decisions with unwavering resolve, compassion and kindness when negotiations breakdown. If we do we will perform the most important service to ourselves, our children and mankind; to groom generations of leaders equipped to tackle the great social problems of the world. Enjoy this most important and meaningful mission.

Streamlined Principles For Functional Literary Criticism Approaches

“There is then creative reading as well as creative writing. When the mind is braced by labor and invention, the page of whatever book we read becomes luminous with manifold allusion. Every sentence is doubly significant, and the sense of our author is as broad as the world.”

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Literary criticisms combine reading and writing procedures where literary works of varied genre are subjected for evaluation, analysis, descriptions, and interpretations. These literary pieces may be a poem, an essay, a novel a short story, among others. Ogenlewe (2006) also adds that doing literary criticisms are scholarly exercises which weigh and consider the qualities or drawbacks of a certain work.

Literary criticisms come in varied approaches, and these are historical, mythological, biographical, formalistic, psychological, gender, sociological, reader-response, and deconstructionist. These are upshots of literary theories that I perceive as among the remarkable ways that can refurbish students’ academic writing skills. It is therefore proposed that literary works targeted for criticisms need to be matched with the types of approaches to be manipulated. Writers of these kinds should possess a purposeful decision which is based from the nature of a specific work, along with the fact that these approaches may overlap to cause deviation of focus in arriving at a well-written output. Incorporating several practically- formulated principles for an effective written article tend to be a major support. I recommend these criteria to basic learners.

Principle one (1) offers learners to obtain necessary background regarding introduction to literature subject. Background knowledge in literature is a basic criteria before you can employ these approaches. It includes learning individual’s knowledge regarding the genre and elements of literature that connects to literary devices and techniques, timeline of world literature that gives one broad perception on their connections to history, and literary theories which these approaches emanated. Satisfactory level of awareness regarding literary criticism is usually encouraged combined with advanced skill of the English language; writers’ creative and informative ideas in the literary world are manifested through appropriate grammatically-structured forms.

Principle two (2) allows learners to reflect the genre where the literary work belongs. Is it an essay, a novel, a poem, a short story, a biography, a memoir, an autobiography, fable, a play, or a drama, among other forms? What features are usually found in these categories? Knowing the genre of the piece to deal with will provide prospects for everyone to be acquainted with the dominant features found in the written art. A work’s dominant features are implied, or directly stated through the authors’ words which may lead to a suitable literary approach that you can operate. If there’s a need to research on its contexts, you’re encouraged to do so. The information you will gather helps in developing your opening paragraph. They may vary from structures and some other elements such as the theme, or characters will yield a general perception about the work attributing to the relevance of selecting the suitable approach for an effective paper.

Principle three (3) provides opportunities to observe the major distinctions of the literary approaches. Failure to infer distinctions of these approaches is commonly tantamount to inability to apply them. Determining the differences between the literary approaches takes you to a fitting writing style. Your formulated questions measure your capacity of comprehending the rationale behind every approach as a writer. It’s crucial and viable to understand each concept by creating questions out of it, instead of memorizing their definitions. Keep in mind that historical criticism’s purpose is based on the situations and events under particular time; tantamount to saying that it may be linked to the writer’s life, historical, and social background among places during his time. Mythological criticism emphasizes on primordial patterns which have occurred in different time and space known as archetypes. This is either a symbol, a character, a situation, or an image which connects to further understanding among readers. Archetypes are found from fiction or real-life events. Biographical criticism involves the writer’s life which delivers details in supporting analysis. Formalistic approach defines how the elements comprising literary devices and literary techniques are merged as a whole to influence the readers’ perceptions. Psychological criticism is used to analyze the artist’s behavior and how this can be useful or unsettling to sanctioned standards of human interactions. It can also be used to study the writer’s biography and how his life’s events affected his behavior. We can further utilize this by analyzing the writer’s personality through associating psychological facts to support underlying reasons for the emergence of such behavior. Gender criticism sensibly scrutinizes works that project discrimination or prejudices among men and women in achieving equality in the real world. Sociological criticism is employed when we involve the cultural, economic and political situations where this work has been based. Reader-response criticism is used to express varied insights or interpretations linked to readers’ religious, cultural, social belief upon reading the literary works, and then arriving at the real meaning based from the passage. Deconstructionist criticism is an approach employed to understand how a work is created. It’s a way of analyzing by reducing it into smaller parts to discover ideas. It’s a means of ascertaining how an author shows his ideas in words which doesn’t represent fully his intended thoughts by others since words are not exact. Readers have the tendency to make subjective interpretations. By breaking the text, readers will closely comprehend what the author means to arrive at an objective representations of the ideas.

Principle four (4) aids students to familiarize the purposes of each approach and initially examine an opted literary work through guide questions. Creating questions to match a suitable method of study will be beneficial. These questions should synchronize with the factual knowledge regarding these techniques. Does the piece relate to justifiable historical, and social events? Is the work related with the writer’s life when this was made? Does it have dominant allusions or recurring patterns to other works of literature or in real- life situations? Does it strongly relate to author’s biography? Does it comprise varied literary techniques and literary devices? Are there significant literary techniques and devices used as functional elements? Does it project prevailing distinctive behavior which can be investigated through psychological linkages? Does the work reveal points of discrimination or prejudice on men or women’s equal opportunities? How significant are these contradictory points towards specific or general society’ existing social norms? Does it contain cultural, economic and political backgrounds to be examined? Are there ideas that project cultural practices, economic issues, and political events? Does the piece provide varied insights or interpretations associated to man’s religious, cultural, social belief? Is it possible to break it down into smaller parts in order to find out how the language is used by the author in implying his or her specific ideas apart from personal interpretations? Should you decide for subjective over objective interpretations, will you be able to provide your ideas’ supporting details through the words that are extracted from the passages?

Principle five (5) stimulates the learners to decide a final approach. Do you have enough supporting details upon deciding the method to be explored in your writing criticism? For example, you opted historical approach from Leo Tolstoy’s, War and Peace. Are there numerous historical events that you can link in performing this task, or will it be apt if you utilize the formalistic style? Will the details suffice your chosen methodology? While examining the content and features of Edgar Allan Poe’s Cask of Amontillado, you noticed that there are several primordial patterns from other literary works. Would you choose biographical, or focus on mythological method for this matter?

Principle six (6) leads students to decide the intended writing process. Are you going to evaluate, analyze, describe or interpret a preferred work? Do you choose to undergo three or four processes? Will you just discuss on the piece’s qualities or drawbacks, or both? Initially deciding the process such as evaluation, analysis, description and interpretation will deliver you an opportunity for easy reflection of the details which are relevant in the activity.

Principle seven (7) brings beginning writers to limit focus to target a specific subject and organize researched details. To what extent will you write? Writing these types of exercises doesn’t rely more on your opinions. You need to perform some inquiries to sustain your claims. If you’re to write using mythological strategy, will the archetypes thoroughly allude to literature and history? Symbols might have occurred in some fictional works so it is relevant to rely on some sources. Moreover, these symbols might have resemblances in history which your inquiries may support. If you opted formalistic approach, you have to consider the work’s techniques and devices that necessitate some elaboration. There are several literary devices to be explored and that you have to elucidate each one of these in conjunction to what you’re expected to explore encompassing lengthy composition; it’s best to focus on one element. Perhaps, you can pick one to be expounded such as between the characters, theme/s, or the setting/s. Thus, you will arrive at a title, Character Analysis of Guy De Maupassant’s The Necklace, or Setting Analysis of Edgar Allan Poe’s, Cask of Amontillado. One alternative is to combine two elements together. As an example, connect the settings and themes of a literary masterpiece which may result to Thematic and Setting Analysis of Charles Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities. Execution of this principle provides specific concentration on desired topics. Since you have enough supporting details to back your chosen appropriate approach, you can start writing.

To further appreciate these suggested principles, here’s an example from Percy Beshy Shelly’s Ozymandias where its archetypes are used for mythological approach. Thus, the title is expressed as, Euphoric Supremacy In Shelly’s Ozymandias, A Mythological Approach

Euphoric Supremacy In Shelly’s Ozymandias,

A Mythological Approach

Ozymandias is a sonnet written in 1817 during the Romantic Age in England. The poem’s passage is closely perceived as a chronicle of the past and the present which are revealed and represented by the archetypes such as symbols, characters, and situations. The scattered fragments of a shattered statue once built and worshiped is a strong symbol of declined and obnoxious authority or power. The crushed statue also signifies abusively aggressive characters, and replicates situations in dark history of human control where the governed in a territory, in the long run, resist tremendous abuses. These archetypes allude to both literature and history.

In literature whatever period some works may fall, this poem displays the deadly influence of power. In Greek mythology, Icarus fully aware of his improvised wings, continued to fly as far as he could discontented of the pleasures he felt while hovering up high, unrelentingly soar despite his father’s warning. His behavior represents human being’s great tendencies to go beyond limits. Secondly, in Christopher Marlowe’s Faust, Dr. Faust as the main character isn’t satisfied of his acumen conveyed by his unjustifiable decision for making a pact with the devil in exchange of his soul for extraordinary powers, which finally led to his gruesome destruction. He had been lured by a devil-vested power to a euphoria that he never noticed the fast-moving time awaiting for his tragic end. These two characters in literature are symbolic of people who fatefully tailor their dooms out of discontentment, amplified by misused of power.

Historically, the sonnet provides recollections of other countries’ uprisings against dictatorial rule around the world. World leaders whose regimes were deposed have one thing in common- removal through rebellion. Some of them had smashed statues, figurative of their destinies. In reference to the poem, Ramesses’ once- idolized shattered statue in 1816 is a primordial or recurring patterns to modern history. Comparatively, in the mid 80’s, revolting Filipinos initially shattered a huge bust of the Philippines’ former president Ferdinand Marcos in the Northern highlands of the country that marked his dynastic regime’s downfall. In 2002, it was completely destroyed. In 1991, the statue of Russia’s Felix Dzerzhinsky was toppled. In 2003, Saddam Hussain’s enormous statue was crushed in Iraq. Also, in 2013, anti-government protests in Ukraine smashed asunder the statue of Russia’s Vladimir Lenin. This year, China’s former communist leader Mao Zedong’s gold-colored effigy was dismantled. All of these structures’ obliteration are indicators of citizens’ protests against abusive powers, surfacing the fact that no rough supremacy is permanent, and that it can be lethal to the beholders, if these cause the agony of the ruled majority.

“Ozymandias, king of kings:

Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!’

Nothing beside remains.”

The poem embeds allusions of historical conflicts which to these days continue to recur reaching almost a quarter of the 21st century exposing similarities among other nations’ populace whose long- awaited common objective is to achieve change. Shelley expressed in his poem, that a king’s rule has finally ended and that the unified wrath of the public he once governed with autocracy led to the devastation of his once- adored effigy. The power to command has finally faded.

“Two vast and trunkless legs of stone

Stand in the desert. Near them, on the sand,

Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown,

And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command..”

The poem’s archetypes recollect current symbolical scenarios of fallen leaders in world events. The ongoing sieges similar to the Syrian civil war, the former uprisings in Ukraine and its conflict with Russia, the clashes that took place in Venezuela, and the recently concluded Thai citizens’ uprising, downfalls of unwanted leaders as results of groundbreaking acts that marked primal patterns. Time has created a natural timeline of downfalls that drumbeat the archetypes found in Shelly’s sonnet. In 2000, Serbia protest erupted in Belgrade against Slobodan Milosevic. In 2003, Hussein was overthrown. Also at the same year, Georgia’s Edward Shevardnadze was forced to resign during the Rose Revolution. In 2005, Kyrgyzstan’s Azkar Akayev was dethroned during the Tulip Revolution. In 2011, Tunisia’s Zine El -Abidene Ben Ali sought exile in Saudi Arabia during the Arab Spring Revolution, and in the same year, Libya’s Muammar Gaddafi was murdered by protestors. Other leaders followed to fall. Egypt’s Hosni Mubarak, a longtime leader was sentenced to life, and Yemen’s Ali Abdullah Saleh vacated his administration by people power. All of these situations tend to be mirrored in Shelly’s poem.

These remarkable lines convey the end of puppetry. Gone were the moments when man’s rational capacities were replaced or barred by deceiving human sovereignty. The following combined metaphoric lines highlight the termination of a despotic rule:

“Vast and trunkless legs of stone, stand in the desert; sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown; and wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command; these lifeless things; the hand that mocked them and the heart that fed; king of kings; mighty, and despair, and nothing beside remains.”

Time being the greatest element of change seemed to have offered lessons among humanity through indirect retributions. Through uncontrolled man-made phenomena such as tyrannical governance, the ruled endowed their reasons instead of sentiments by choosing commendable leaders if not to eradicate them through revolts. As a silent witness to gruesome human deeds, time must have been mourning to what it sees by offering the right moment of enlightenment for the beset innocent populace who hunger freedom and tranquility in order to once again fully embrace the splendid spirit of valuing human lives in a battered planet.

Kissinger says power is an aphrodisiac, but Shelly’s archetypes-full poem articulates it as a euphoric key to one’s catastrophic defeat and oblivion. Shelly’s piece aside from recounting historical events foreshadow similar occurrences. It brings us to a point that in as far as power is abused, time awaits its defeat in varied forms or symbols; the shattering of abusive leaders’ busts is one. The archetypes embedded in this poem are revelations of truth found in history which has several resemblances among literary works consciously or unconsciously projected.

Top MBA Colleges in Delhi/NCR

MBA Colleges in Delhi:

Faculty of Management Studies (FMS), University of Delhi:

Faculty of Management Studies (FMS) is one of the oldest B-Schools in the country, established in 1954 under the aegis of the University of Delhi. The institute was started as a part of the Delhi School of Economics and has grown to be a full-fledged management institute.

Ranking: One of the top ranked B-Schools, FMS has been known for its quality management education and creation of down-to-earth business leaders.

Entrance Exam: Admission process is made through CAT. A composite score shall be computed giving weightage of 30%, 30% and 40% to the score of sections of CAT.

Fee Structure: The annual fee payable to FMS is approximately Rs. 10, 000/- for MBA program.

Placements: The placement process was divided into two parts, the lateral and the final placement processes. To encourage entrepreneurship, FMS provides a placement holiday to students who wish to pursue their own ventures and allows them to participate in a subsequent placement process for up to two years, in case they want to avail the opportunity.

Campus Facility: The facility in the campus includes:

  • Technology Resources
  • Finance Lab
  • Library
  • Hostel Accommodation

Department of Management Studies, IIT Delhi:

Department of Management Studies (DMS) has heavy research orientation as its forte, which is further used extensively for designing courses to respond to the current industry issues. Department of Management Studies (DMS), IIT Delhi is known for its 100% placements record which is the reflection of the timeless ties and relationships with their corporate partners.

Ranking: DMS, IIT Delhi has been ranked in the top 2 schools in the “Business and Management Research” category of the “Stanford Ranking” for 2015. Outlook has ranked IIT Delhi 6th among the top 10 B-schools in India 2016. DMS, IIT Delhi shares top three ranks in India for business and management studies along with IIM Ahmedabad and IIM Bangalore in QS India University Rankings 2015.

Entrance Exam: Admission is done on the basis of valid score obtained in CAT entrance exam.

Fee Structure: Rs. 4 Lacs for the entire MBA full time program payable in equal installments

Placements: 100% of placements for 2014-16 batch has been accomplished at DMS. The placement season of DMS has reinstated its position in the upper echelon of the premier B-schools in the country.

Campus facility: The facility in the campus includes:

  • Library
  • Research Lab
  • Wi-Fi enabled lecture theatres
  • Sports and Games
  • Medical Facilities

Amity Business School (ABS), Noida

Amity School of Business (ASB), Noida was established as a part of Amity University, Noida. It has been ranked as number one BBA institute of Delhi-NCR by Business & Management Chronicle.

Ranking: Amity Business School, Noida has done it again third time and is ranked among the top 10 Business Schools in India including IIMs as per Times B-School Rankings. It is ranked 5th (Without IIMs) and 11th (Including IIMs) in top B-School of India by Times Business School Survey (Times of India).

Entrance Exam: Selection of candidates will be based on their CAT/ MAT/GMAT/XAT score. If the candidates have not appeared in CAT/MAT/GMAT/XAT or the score is less than the required cut off accepted by Amity, then candidates can appear for Amity written test followed by group discussion and/or interview on the day of selection process.

Fee Structure: The fee for MBA program is around 1, 62, 000/- for the first semester.

Placements: Over 5,000 students have got on-campus placements with over 800 being placed even one year before graduating. After completing the first year course work, the students are placed in different organisations for a period of about 8 weeks on a specific assignment.

Campus Facility: The facility in the campus includes:

  • Classrooms
  • Computer Center
  • Internet
  • Library
  • Laboratories
  • Seminar Hall
  • Auditorium

Bharati Vidyapeeth University Institute of Management and Research:

BVIMR, Delhi was established in 1992, is affiliated to Bharati Vidyapeeth University.

Ranking: BVIMR is ranked amongst top 50 B-Schools in Delhi and top 5 in Delhi by Business India and Business & Management Chronicle. Also, BVIMR is ranked 1st amongst top 10 B-Schools in India in term of placement at Business & Management Chronicle 2014.

Entrance Exam: The final admission is based solely on the merit at the All India entrance test (B-MAT) conducted by the Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune.

Fee Structure: The fee for MBA program is around Rs. 2, 50,000/- pa for regular merit category, Rs. 3, 50,000/- pa for management merit category.

Placements: BVIMR is witness of 100% quality placement for the last five years. Every year blue chip companies from different sectors including FMCG, Banking, IT, automobiles and many more have been included in the recruitment lists.

Campus Facility: The facility in the campus includes:

  • Information Resource Center
  • BVIMR Library
  • Internet / Wi-fi
  • Hostel

Delhi School of Management (DSM), DTU:

Delhi School of Management (DSM) was established in 2009 with the up gradation of Delhi College of Engineering into Delhi Technological University (DTU). DSM offers dual specialization thereby developing the students’ skills to alter the requirements of a competitive environment.

Ranking: Delhi School of Management Ranks 32nd in Times B-school Top 100 ranking and bags 10th rank in Times B-school Regional Ranking, 2015. DTU is ranked No. 5 in India Today survey 2015 amongst the leading Technological Educational Institutes in India.

Entrance Exam: Applications for admission will be short-listed on the basis of performance in CAT and qualifying examination.

Fee Structure: The fee for MBA program is around Rs. 99, 000/- to be paid at the time of admission.

Placements: Placements commence with a series of pre-placement talks (PPT). The Pre-Placement Talks or Company Presentations are an opportunity for the Companies to interact with the students, understand their expectations and apprise them of the job requirements and job profiles offered. Students have the opportunity to learn about recruiting companies through a series of on-campus presentations. As a compulsory part of curriculum, students are required to undergo Summer Internship with an organization for a period of 8 weeks.

Campus Facility: The facility in the campus includes:

  • Computer Centre
  • Research Laboratories
  • Smart Classrooms with State of the Art audio and video support
  • Centralized Library
  • Open Air Theatre
  • Sports Centre

Text Based Role Playing Games – Benefits

A text based role playing game is a chat environment, where each person assumes the role of a character, and writes out their characters dialogue and action, as if they were in a story. It is at its heart a collaborative storytelling experience, a way for multiple people to write a novel, each taking a piece, and working together to develop the whole.

While it may seem a laborious task, it’s actually more of a game. Each person is playing a role, akin to an actor, and yet rather than following lines, they are making everything up as they go along. It’s like a session of “make believe”, with a chronicle recording the actions and words used in literary form.

Aside from being a game, this can actually be a very beneficial exercise. It is a form of writing practice that is constantly refined by the social group that surrounds the person. It allows feedback for both grammar, and content. By writing in a group this way you are actually able to evolve your own literary skills.

Children who participate in such communities often receive feedback from older members with a better grasp of the written language, which helps teach them in turn how to be better writers themselves, with the hopes that one day, they can instruct others. By forming this writing exercise into a game the participants don’t even know that their learning.

These games also help with socialization skills. Interacting in a fictional environment, participants are able to express themselves as they want to be. This allows them to explore methods of socialization, and interaction with other people, in a safe and non-judgmental environment.

In all, text based role playing can be beneficial for the mind and education of the players who participate. It allows people to learn better linguistic skills, while still enjoying themselves in a fairly non-judgmental manner.

Significance of Debilitated Moon in Astrology

Characteristic of Moon:

  • Moon in the birth chart is considered of great importance because it is a very quick moving planet [it traverses one cycle of zodiac in about 27 days] and is capable of giving sudden good/bad results.
  • It is lord of sign Cancer.
  • It is cold, changeable, moist, receptive, female planet having Rajas qualities.
  • Its constellations are Rohini, Hast and Shravan.
  • Moon fully aspects the 7th house from it.
  • It has a Dasa period of 10 years in the chart.
  • Its sign of exaltation is Taurus and sign of debilitation is Scorpio.

Astrological significance of Moon:

  • It governs conception, embryo, animal instinct and birth of child.
  • It represents mother, home and country.
  • Power of mental brilliance, emotional activities and mental acts are controlled by the Moon.
  • Family life, home, personal affairs and general public is indicated by this planet.
  • Fertile Imagination, pleasurable pursuits and artistic mind are indicated by moon.
  • It acts as nourishing and soothing planet.
  • Left eye, breast, stomach, uterus, ovaries, body-fluids, lymph, bladder, and oesophagus are indicated by Moon.

Debilitated moon:

  • Debilitation is a state of a planet occupies its sign of detriment or fall; it is the weakest position of a planet. Moon gets very weak and debilitated when it transits in the sign Scorpio.
  • In the sign Scorpio the Moon fails to protect/promote the characteristics ruled by it.
  • The debilitated Moon placed in any auspicious houses destroys the good result of that house.
  • Strength/placement of depositor or Mars in this case should be analysed.
  • Aspects/association/conjunction of other planets to Moon should be analysed for correct prediction.
  • Consideration of Neech bhang raj yoga.
  • States of Moon infancy/old age and waxing/waning should be checked up.

Results of debilitated Moon for different ascendants:

Aries: Moon placed in 8th house in the state of debilitation indicates hard childhood, diseases related to cold and cough, chronicle diseases; this position is not favourable for mother/maternal relatives.

Taurus: Moon placed in 7th house indicates marital discord, loose morality, dissatisfaction with life partner, loose morality, many obstacles in career and misfortune after marriage.

Gemini: placement of Moon in 6th house indicates loss of inheritance, financial constraints, loss of accumulated wealth and suffering from the ailments of throat, eyes and mouth.

Cancer: debilitated Moon posited in 5th house shows cruel and cunning nature of the native, suffering from offspring’s, unfortunate love affairs resulting in emotional breakdown, inclination for malefic deeds.

Leo: placement of Moon in 4th house is inauspicious for family life; the native will be extremely emotional, problems related with conveyance and property, faces disgrace due to his stupid deeds.

Virgo: Moon in 3rd house lays obstacles in flow of income, discord with females, unfulfilled desires and dissatisfaction.

Libra: Moon placed in 2nd house indicates financial and family constraints, always unsuccessfulness; due to bad karma the native loses the inheritance and parental property and having malefic speech.

Scorpio: in ascendant Moon indicates egoistic nature, unsuccessfulness due to careless and extreme emotional nature, diseases of cold and cough are predicated.

Sagittarius: Moon in 12th house indicates fear and inferiority complex, limitation, hindrance, enforced retirement, sickness due to acts of indiscretion, enmities with females causing worry and trouble, due to extravagant nature repayment of loan becomes tough.

Capricorn: in 11th house Moon lays obstacles in married life, desertion by near ones and getting success in career after crossing many hurdles.

Aquarius: Moon in 10th signifies the disgrace in life due to malefic mentality, profession/occupation demanding constant change/voyage/travelling, dispute with government, constant suffering from disease/ loan/enemies, fluctuation in business/ occupation/profession, unsuccessfulness in any work, public scandal and censure.

Pisces: Debilitated Moon posited in 9th house indicates misfortune due to offspring, less progeny, disgrace for father, due to failed love affairs the native has to face disgrace with broken education.

BY

GEETA JHA [SPIRITUAL HEALER]

INDIA

The MAOL Degree Explained

There are several types of graduate business degrees which prepare students for many types of careers. The most typical is the Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree, with its concentrations or emphasis areas. There is also the Master of Science (MS) degree which allows a student to explore a business concentration in more depth, such as in management, accounting, or finance. There is also a more broad-based business degree for students that are interested in understanding the culture and behavior of organizations. This degree is specifically designed to teach individuals to manage teams and systems from both the human and technical perspective. It is interdisciplinary in its approach in that it synthesizes knowledge from different fields, including business, the social sciences, and communication. This degree is the Master of Arts in Organizational Leadership (Mahuron, 2013).

A versatile graduate degree, the Master of Arts in Organizational Leadership (MAOL) prepares individuals to handle the human aspect of business management in a variety of roles and settings, which encompasses all private, public, and nonprofit organizations and businesses. Graduates can be employed to lead organizational change, be involved in human resource management, employee recruitment and development, and to help create high-performing work forces. They can be used as corporate trainers, adult educators, program developers, or instructional designers. They can be found working at institutions of higher learning in the development, planning, and implementing college-level programs within the student services division of schools, or providing leadership in an administrative role. It is also common for these graduates to teach college-level courses in student development, leadership, and adult basic education (Mahuron, 2013). MAOL graduates are indeed equipped for top paying positions such as Human Resources Manager, Production Supervisor, and Administrative Service Manager (Wilson, 2012).

Typical coursework for the MAOL involves theories in leadership and their application, human relations, diversity within organizations, and techniques for solving organizational issues and conflict resolution (Wilson, 2012). Effective written and verbal communication skills, employee training and development, and project management coursework could also be included.

The MAOL degree is considered to be an alternative to the popular MBA degree. While the MBA concentrates on the analytical parts of leadership, the MAOL emphasizes psychology and philosophy as it relates to employee and organizational behaviors. Each of these degrees has its own managerial approach and techniques. MAOL programs have been shown to create higher quality leaders than MBA programs, because of their heavy emphasis on organizational leadership (Wilson, 2012).

Sources

Mahuron, S. (2013). What Jobs Can You Get With an Organizational Leadership Degree? The Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 24 Oct 2013 from http://work.chron.com/jobs-can-organizational-leadership-degree-6405.html

Wilson, A. (2012, September 24). MSOL: Better Than an MBA? College Being. Retrieved 24 Oct 2013 from http://www.collegebeing.com/msol-better-than-mba/

When College is Threatened With Closure

Nowadays there are many colleges that are threatened with closure. The most important reason of this is that these places lack money. I hope you will take the following suggestions into consideration so as to avoid the closure of your favourite school.

Firstly, I suggest a small tuition fee for each student. Only students from poor or broken families could be excluded from having to pay it. Some more money could be raised by organising charity events like sales of home-made cakes and cookies as well as preparing Christmas and Easter cards and the sale of works of art by our most talented pupils. This would make the school more self-sufficient.

Secondly, there seems to be a solution to the problem of current repairs. Many of parents own firms which deal with household repairs so they could do the repair work for your school free of charge. The name of these sponsors would be mentioned in the School Chronicle and the school could save a substantial amount of money.

Thirdly, may I suggest that your school could rent out its sport facilities after school hours, like the gym, the fitness club and the playing-field. If your school is new one and still in good condition, it could become popular among your community members as a place to exercise their bodies and minds. In this way, the place would become a social meeting place for most of them. What is more, some of your classrooms could be rented to language schools to organise various language courses.

Finally, I think that it is a government’s duty to provide the school with enough money to assist. The future of our country depends on the education of today’s youth. Besides, young people ought to get education they are entitled to. In conclusion, it can be seen that there are a few ways for your school to avoid being closed, should my suggestions be acted upon. Not only could this institution serve educational purposes but it could also serve all the members of our community and be part of it.

Summary – Autobiography of a Yogi

India, an ancient civilization is well known to be the cradle of a rich and perpetual heritage. The pristine land has always throbbed with the vibrancy of the originality, creativity and self motivated activities of its illumined souls. Their deep, original and sublime thoughts have presented to the world, distinctive gifts of knowledge, be it be in language, values, religion, philosophy, art, business, mathematics, astrology, medicine, surgery much more and beyond; a unique universal heritage, and an eternal formulae to a calm way of life.

The masters have successfully sought to give answers to all the queries that are bound to pop up in the mind of every human being at some point of time in their life on earth. They have unraveled the ultimate mysteries that surround life, death and afterlife. The peerless Vedas, the Vedanta i.e. the Upanishads and the Puranas are a treasure trove of great learning and unveiled deep secrets. They have provided Godly guidance to human life at every moment in time and space ever since they were first recorded, centuries ago. These texts contain the essential summaries that form the doctrinal basis of Hindu religion.

In the league of such a legacy, modern India continues to produce spiritual masters as was done so in every era. Their role on earth is to guide the not so enlightened souls who often loose their way in the mayhems of the day to day worldly activities. The spiritual vitality offered by their worshipful presence and golden words; the ever true messages expounded by illumined ‘Bhaagwat Gita’, has eternally held the power to rejuvenate India century after century.

One such celebrated and illumined soul is Paramahansa Yoganandji. His life-story is referred to as a modern spiritual classic. It is an inspiring chronicle of the life of a true yogi, a glimpse into the training years in the hermitage of his God realized guru, and his startling description of ‘cosmic consciousness’ reached on the upper levels of yogic practice. His teachings are interpreted and are now creatively applied to endeavors such as education, psychology, management, and business.

“Our conscious and subconscious being is crowned by superconsciousness,” Rabbi Israel H. Lavinthal pointed out in a lecture in New York. “Many years ago the English psychologist F.W.H Myers, suggested that ‘hidden in the deep of our beings is a rubbish heap as well as the treasure house.’ In contrast to the psychology that centers all its researches on the subconscious in the man’s nature, the new psychology of the superconscious focuses its attention upon the treasure house – the region that alone can explain the great, unselfish, heroic deeds of men.” It has been experienced that knowledge, skill or even any relationship that is not supported by the undercurrents of spirituality has found to ultimately go defunct, obsolete and sometimes lost. The active expression of intelligence by great men finds its basis on the foundations of genuine virtues.

Softskill training programs entrusted to maintain the morale and vigor of employees in the complexities of work environment find much success when they are enriched with sublime religious and philosophical concepts. One can not expect lasting transformation in a person until and unless the concept has touched the chord of his soul and awakened his spirit. Work and workplace become blissful, and interrelationships become softened with accommodative patience, forbearance and wisdom when people acknowledge their inherent animal instincts of vanity, greed and jealousy as the ‘suicide bombs’ that are the mother of stress and an eventual self destruction.

The life story is also exemplary because of the comparative notes it has drawn from the divine Hindu texts and the holy Bible. The master has expounded the deathless essence of Christian Bible with beautiful clarity and the truth in Christ’s assertion “Heaven and Earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away”-Matthew 24:35 (Bible)

His Pearls of Wisdom and its easy application in ordinary human life

• Impartiality: The execution of the trait of impartiality i.e. the ability to perceive all men in striking similarity is rooted into wisdom. A self realized person does not subject to the likes and dislikes that confuse the judgment of unenlightened men.

• “Conserve your powers. Be like the capacious ocean, absorbing quietly all the tributaries of the senses. Daily renewed sense yearning sap the inner peace; they are like openings in the reservoirs that permit vital waters to be wasted in the desert of materialism. The forceful and activating impulse of the wrong desire is the greatest enemy to the happiness of man. Roam in the world as the lion of self-control; don’t let the frogs of weak senses kick around you!”

• Man has the natural privilege of roaming secretly in his thoughts. Manage your thoughts judiciously; destroy the wrong thoughts as soon as possible. A thought is a force, as electricity and gravitation.

• Thoughts should be weighed in a delicate balance of discrimination before permitting them outward garb of speech.

• Indulge in Auto-suggestion and self dialogue for self correction from time to time. Be your best friend. As Lord Buddha remarked ‘Atm deepam bhawam’ i.e. be your own light.

• Believe that and tell yourself what you need to accomplish and it shall be done. Your accomplishments often follow your subconscious expectations. The human mind is capable of accomplishing what ever it feels intensely.

• The world does not change for anyone. Leverage your accommodative capacity in accordance with the requirements of the world.

• Our behaviors are our introduction to the society. Good manners without sincerity are like beautiful dead lady. Straightforwardness without civility is like a surgeon’s knife, effective but unpleasant. Candor with courtesy is helpful and admirable.

• The lives of all men are dark with many shames. Human conduct is ever unreliable until man is anchored in the divine. The only sure shot to ‘rosy’ future is when we make spiritual efforts now.

• Keen intelligence is two edged. It can be used constructively and destructively, like a knife, either to cut the boil of ignorance or to decapitate oneself. Intelligence is rightly guided only after mind has acknowledged the inescapably of spiritual laws.

The works of the yogi has helped the world understand that distinctions by race or nations are meaningless in the realm of truth, where the only qualification is the fitness to receive. Every saint who has penetrated to the core of Reality has testified that a divine universal plan exists and that it is beautiful and full of joy.

The human entity composed of the tangible physical body and the invisible spirit secretly desires not only the nourishment of the body with healthy food but it also seeks nourishment of the spirit with soulful meditations and cosmic encounters. The purpose of each life is to meet God in his lifetime. The latter requires conscious effort on the part of the individual. Each of us is sent to earth to undertake a separate journey which is unique, and not a copy of another, even if it is a prophet or a saint, though to seek motivation from their lives is a much welcome step in the journey of stretching over cosmogonic abysses even while the body performs its daily duties.

Renaissance and Neoclassical Historical Arts

Renaissance is a cultural movement that started in Europe during the early 14th to 17th century or a period between the Classical and Modern era. More than its cultural essence, the Renaissance period was known for its developments in art, painting, philosophy, architecture and other intellectual aspects. It was an era that witnessed the largest growth and development in Western Europe.

A1. Renaissance art took its shape from the social conditions that existed at that time that carved Europe’s political structure. The cultural rarity of Italy existed, as there was no political form during the early modern period that resulted in artistic and academic advancements. This freedom opened gateways to trade and commerce across the globe that brought wealth in Italy through commissioning its artistic work.

Renaissance artists looked for human emotions and realism in art. They focused on making human portrays with a natural background. They took the Humanism approach, placing more emphasis on man than god, which was reflected in their sculptures and paintings. The Early Renaissance period focused more on creating sculptures on the basis of personality and behavior, whereas the High Renaissance was more towards balance and drama. Renaissance artists were greatly inspired by Roman and Greek art that used nude human bodies of personality in their art. Their attempt to gain perfection in human arts for expression, personality, and emotions reduced social hierarchies in the status of people resulting in everybody wanting to learn and share their ideas and skills.

A2. Neoclassicism was a predominant movement during the mid 18th century and the late 19th century in European art and architecture. It focused on the western classical art forms of ancient Greece and Rome. It was partly a movement that had initiated as a reaction to the Baroque and Rococo styles. It became a predominant part of academic art that continued into the 19th century to become visible as museums of neoclassical architecture.

Neoclassical art aimed in reviving the European Age of Enlightenment that was the Greek and Roman classical art forms. It aimed to contain the ‘purity’ of Roman arts and criticized Baroque and Rococo styles. Neoclassicism gained importance in France and England spreading towards Sweden. It made use of the classical essence relating to courage and nationalism.

Neoclassicism aimed to resurge classical styles through usage of sharp colors and classical subjects. They avoided light and soft colors in their paintings that depicted calmness and grandeur. Neoclassicists revived the Greek painting styles by using mosaics, columns, engravings and other ornamental elements in their work.

A3. Renaissance signified the rebirth of arts, science, and medicine and was an era that was responsible for most radical developments and movements in Europe. So much so, that it is also used to describe other major cultural and historical moments. Classical Renaissance gave birth to the Baroque style that was more dramatic and direct. Therefore Neoclassicism was nothing but a reaction to the Baroque style so as to preserve the purity of ancient Roman arts. Moreover, neoclassicism remained one of the foremost in academic arts.

A3a.

  • Renaissance period was known for its Humanist approach in art while neoclassical art focused on more classical and pure elements of style;
  • The Renaissance period brought about radical developments in arts, philosophy, and medicine while neoclassical art was foremost in academic arts;
  • Renaissance artists believed in more natural and expressive nude sculptures of art while neoclassical artists incorporated ornamental elements in their work;
  • The Renaissance period opened gateways to new ideas and developments, while the neoclassicism period focused on retaining the Age of Enlightenment.

A3b. The Renaissance era was one of the most influential and flourishing period during the 15th and 16th centuries and gave birth to major cultural developments for almost three centuries. Renaissance art was born out of an evolving civilization whose quest for Realism and scientific perfection resulted in some of the greatest works and achievement in arts, science, architecture, and philosophy. The distinguishing feature of Renaissance art is its dedication to classical arts with a renewed interest in Roman styles that included naked human sculptures with no landscapes in a natural environment. It was an important era that brought wealth to Europe and its artistic freedom enabled skilled artisans to flourish.

A3b1. Leonardo Da Vinci

Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) was one of the greatest artists of the Renaissance period. Also known as the ‘Renaissance Man’, was born in Italy and was a renowned painter who became a polymath in many fields such as music, science, mathematics, and botany. He is considered as one of the greatest diversely talented persons to have lived. Mona Lisa is one of the most renowned works of his time that was greatly appreciated. The Mona Lisa is a 16th century half-length portrait that was made in oil and of a seated woman.

Andrea Appiani (1754-1817) Born in Milan, was an Italian neoclassical painter. He trained under Carlo Maria Giudici and learnt painting by copying sculptures. His best works are in the church of San Maria presso San Celso and the royal palace at Milan. Among some of his works of oil paintings are Venus and Love, and Rinaldo in the garden of Armida.

A3b2. Madame Hamelin (1776-1851) was one of the neoclassical painter Andrea Appiani’s work that bears a similar resemblance to Leonardo Da Vinci’s Monal Lisa. Both are half-length oil portraits of women who are half-seated that reflects the natural facial expressions wherein their hands are folders bearing similar artistic values and styles to one another.

A3c. Neoclassicism reached its most influential period in arts during the 1780s to 1850s. New archeological discoveries and settings paved the way for classical themes that also resulted from the reaction of the Rococo styles. Neoclassicism retained its classical antiquity and co-existed with its much opposite form of Romanticism art. Artists of the neoclassical era replaced religious and mythological objects with realistic, simple, and bold ones. IN the 1830s, the Neoclassicism era was replaced by Romanticism.